Nota: Este contenido tiene una versión original en español

Esteban de Antuñano, from Veracruz, were born in 1792, however he worked in Puebla and was an industry pioneer in Mexico because of his textiles factories located in the border of Atoyac River.

In Luis Andres Prado (historian) thesis, The textile industry in Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz and Coahuila regions, 1830- 1908:

Antuñano was an industry mechanizer in Mexico, because of his idea joining to the textile industry in 1827; although the project was created until 1830, specially because he did not know the specifications to install a factory".

This is the reason of why he travelled to France from 1830 to 1832 to learn more about the correct industry process and made business with Welsh businessmen.

Puebla Businessmen and Shipwreck

Esteban Antuñano had 30 partners that worked with him buying machines and raw material, however after the shipwrecks, they left it little by little.

In 1835, a ship with approximately 30 looms from France, that belongs to the new Antuñano Industry, wrecked in the Golf of Mexico. The second shipwreck had more than the first and had happened the same.

The third one had less looms. Although the economical losses, Antuñano brought more looms, even with all the outstanding debts, also he hired 15 English engineers to install the looms.

Constancia Mexicana Factory

Antuñano's industry project saw the light in 1835 when the factory "La Contancia Mexicana" started to work (even when the presidential inauguration was on 1837) and "La Economía Mexicana".

According with the historian Luis Andres Prado, the factories were installed in the ancient farm called "La Constacia" "because in that place, Atoyac river has a strong current and a very high riverbed", it means, the essential weather characteristics to work with hydraulic energy.

In "La Costancia Mexicana" were made fabric and threads of manta, cotton, demy and flannel.

At the beginning, "La Constancia Mexicana" had between 80 to a thousand workers but the technological developments made that many workers were included, as assures Juan Carlos Grosso in his book called "Los trabajadores fabriles de la Ciudad de Puebla" ("the factory workers of Puebla City").

Crisis and Competition 

In San Francisco River already existed some factories, but they weren't industrialized until after "La Constacia Mexicana", since their low production could not, at the beginning, compete with Antuñano's mechanization.

Antuñano's fiercest competition was the Veracruz textile factory managed by Lucas Alaman; however, Puebla textile industry wasn't fully industrialized until the Porfiriato and Metepec project, 1898.

Esteban de Antuñano was in bankruptcy since 1843, he owed a lot of money to French businessmen and sold his factories to be able to pay debts.

According to Luis Andrés Prado, the causes of his bankruptcy were the shipwrecks and the instability of the country at that time.

Esteban de Antuñano passed away on March 7th, 1847. Hugo Leicht's book "Las Calles de Puebla" ("The Streets of Puebla") that his remains were deposited in the Carmen Church, in the crypt of the Virgin Chapel but during the building renovation his remains disappeared definitively.

Translation by: Luba Michelle García Vega